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how good was the hawker tempest

how good was the hawker tempest

[35] Armed reconnaissance missions were usually flown by two sections (eight aircraft), flying in Finger-four formations, which would cross the front lines at altitudes of 7,000 to 8,000 feet: once the Tempests reached their allocated target area the lead section dropped to 4,000 feet or lower to search for targets to strafe, while the other section flew cover 1,000 feet higher and down sun. The radiator was to be moved into a ventral bath under the rear fuselage and wing centre section: the wingspan was 41 ft (12.5 m) and the length was 37 ft 3 in (11.4 m). [5][11][nb 3] Complications were added to the Tempest program by external factors in the form of engine issues: the Rolls-Royce Vulture engine and corresponding Hawker Tornado aircraft which was being developed in parallel were both terminated. As a result of the termination of the Tornado project, Sydney Camm and his design team transferred the alternative engine proposals for the Tornado to the more advanced Tempest. [15], Examination of captured Fw 190s brought about improvements in the windscreen/ side windows; by careful design and positioning of the frame structure blind spots were reduced to an absolute minimum. The Hawker Tempest Mark V is now available for owners of IL … RAF Tempest IIs saw combat use against guerrillas of the Malayan Races Liberation Army during the early stages of the Malayan Emergency.[35]. The Tempest was an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighter aircraft used during the war. For the pilot a retractable foot stirrup under the starboard root trailing edge was linked to a pair of handholds which were covered by spring-loaded flaps. Various engineering refinements that had gone into the Tempest II were incorporated into the last Tempest variant, the "Tempest VI", which was fitted with a Napier Sabre V engine with 2,340 hp (1,700 kW). According to aviation author Francis K. Mason, the Tempest was commonly accepted as the best–performing RAF fighter in operational service by VE Day. [23] The build-up of Tempest-equipped squadrons was increased rapidly, in part due to factors such as the V-1 threat, although a labour strike in Hawker's assembly shop adversely affected this rate; by September 1944, a total of five frontline Tempest squadrons which comprised 114 aircraft were in operation. The weapon has been described, wrongly, as a 40 mm cannon in many references, including Mason 1991. [6] This prototype also had at first the older Typhoon cockpit structure and vertical tailplane. Tempest Mk IV: Became the Hawker Sea Fury. Although the Typhoon was generally considered to be a good design, Camm and his design team were disappointed with the performance of its wing, which had proved to be too thick in its cross section, and thus created airflow pr… The Typhoon's wing, using a NACA 4 digit series wing section, had a maximum thickness to chord ratio of 19.5% (root) to 12% (tip). In service, its primary role soon developed into performing "armed reconnaissance" operations, often deep behind enemy lines. April 1944. The Tempest I was quickly repaired and resumed flying on 28 March. Beamont, Roland. The retractable tailwheel was fully enclosed by small doors and could be fitted with either a plain Dunlop manufactured tyre, or a Dunlop-Marstrand "twin-contact" anti-shimmy tyre.[7]. Later, it successfully targeted the rail infrastructure in Germany and Luftwaffe aircraft on the ground, as well as countering such attacks by German fighters. When he was shot down and made a POW in February 1945, he had destroyed 11 or 12 German aircraft (and one shared) to make him the highest scoring Tempest ace. All versions of the Sabre drove either a four-bladed, 14 ft (4.267 m) diameter de Havilland Hydromatic or Rotol propeller. [5][7] A further improvement of the Tempest wing over that of the Typhoon was the exceptional, flush-riveted surface finish, essential on a high performance laminar flow airfoil. Early production Tempest V of 486 Sqn. This includes the possibility that some Tempest losses which were attributed to Flak or weather may have been due to air combat. The fuselage/empennage joint originally featured 20 external reinforcing "fishplates", similar to those fitted to the Typhoon, but it was not long before the rear fuselage was strengthened and, with the fishplates no longer being needed, the rear fuselage became detachable. Spitfire XIVs of 125 and 126 Wings often provided medium to high altitude cover for the Tempests. New Tempest Mk.IIs of the first production batch at Hawker Aircraft, showing the clean, closely cowled engine and the carburettor and oil-cooler intakes in the starboard wing's inner leading edge. This engine would have driven a set of eight-bladed contra-rotating propellers. The Centaurus engines were closely cowled and the exhaust stacks were grouped behind and on either side of the engine: behind these were air outlets with automatic sliding "gills". On 21 June 1943, the first production Tempest V, JN729, rolled off the production line[16][18] and its maiden flight was conducted by test pilot Bill Humble. The horizontal tailplanes and elevators were also increased in span and chord; these were also fitted to late production Typhoons. [5], The wing planform was changed to a near-elliptical shape to accommodate the 800 rounds of ammunition for the four 20 mm Hispano cannons, which were moved back further into the wing. The engine installation owed much to examinations of a captured Focke-Wulf Fw 190, and was clean and effective. Bristol Centaurus engine. [13] It was quickly fitted with the same bubble canopy fitted to Typhoons, and a modified fin that almost doubled the vertical tail surface area, made necessary because the directional stability with the original Typhoon fin had been reduced over that of the Typhoon by the longer nose incurred by the new fuel tank. [43], The majority of production Tempests were powered by a single high-powered Napier Sabre II 24-cylinder engine. The Tempest V was in the hands of operational squadrons by April 1944; 3 Squadron was the first to be fully equipped, closely followed by 486 (NZ) Squadron (the only Article XV unit to be equipped with the Tempest during the Second World War). Through a system of linkages, when the canopy was open the stirrup was lowered and the flaps opened, providing easy access to the cockpit. "The Hawker Tempest. The first Tempest Mk.II, LA602, flew on 28 June 1943 powered by a Centaurus IV (2,520 hp/1,879 kW) driving a four-blade propeller. [35] This particular variant was anticipated to have a short lifetime and their phasing out commenced in 1949. According to Roland Beamont, these production delays had been caused by an industrial dispute at Langley. This was apparently used to measure the aircraft's altitude more accurately. [33] In February 1945 33 and 222 Sqns. The top speed was expected to be in the region of 508 mph (817 km/h), with a rate of climb of 6,400 ft/min (1,951 m/min). It had several improvements, including being tropicalised for combat against Japan in South-East Asia as part of the Commonwealth Tiger Force. The Hawker Tempest was a British fighter aircraft primarily used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World War. The Hawker Tempest was a RAF fighter aircraft of World War II, an improved derivative of the Hawker Typhoon, and one of the most powerful fighters used in the war. [16], During production of the first batch of 100 Tempest V "Series Is", distinguished by their serial number prefix JNxxx, several improvements were progressively introduced and were used from the outset on all succeeding Tempest V "Series 2s", with serial number prefixes EJ, NV and SN.

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